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What’s the Difference Between a KOL and a Wanghong?

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发表于 7?天前 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 wangyou 于 2019-10-27 22:17 编辑
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6 i8 [. @0 z' [4 M; V% Q# MWhat’s the Difference Between a KOL and a Wanghong? Savvy influencer marketers in China know
+ C7 j6 @7 I' d! p) D. Vhttps://www.emarketer.com/conten ... -kol-and-a-wanghong
, U0 k" }9 r) r' x" @0 e( ^Influencer marketing is booming in China. The country’s influencer economy this year is estimated to be equivalent to $17.16 billion, double its size in 2016, according to big data firm CBNData.
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It’s hard not to be awestruck by the size of that market. For young consumers, it's inspirational. A recent survey conducted by internet giant Tencent found that 54% of college-age respondents in the country chose “online celebrity” (a synonym of “influencer”) as their first career choice. It’s not difficult to see why, given the potentially lucrative financial returns, fans and free products—all in exchange for what seems like easy work.4 @7 J9 ^& |% ]
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The word “influencer” as it is used in China is broad and applies to people who are bloggers, online content creators, vloggers and live streamers, as well as traditional celebrities. China has its own terminology to refer to an influencer marketing practitioner: key opinion leader (KOL) or “wanghong,” which is the romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation for “online celebrity.”. `??k- h6 y9 {$ P+ D6 A7 C
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An industry of “wanghong incubators” or “KOL academies” is thriving to meet the flood of KOL aspirants. Some incubators span the entire supply chain, handling people’s careers much like a talent agency would. Incubators start with talent discovery and development, and then move that talent into content creation and beyond, including production of products and logistics. Top-notch KOLs may get a full production team devoted to them.
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It’s difficult to get an exact count of how many of these academies are operating, but Kim Leitzes, founder and CEO of Parklu, told The Business of Fashion in June 2018 that at least 200 KOL incubators have popped up in the country.
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; I; O% r9 |4 t# ieMarketer’s latest report, “Influencer Marketing in China: What You Need to Know About KOLs, Wanghongs and the Platforms They Use,” looks at how this marketing tactic has become so prevalent and how marketers have deployed influencer campaigns.
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Some marketers deploying influencer campaigns use KOL and wanghong interchangeably. It’s not always clear-cut which they mean, but there are some important distinctions. KOLs have developed expertise on a topic and have created relationships with their audience over an extended period. Wanghongs became famous because of an internet presence, but their opinions may not necessarily be trusted as expert in relation to the products being hawked. That leads some KOLs to take offense when they are referred to as wanghongs.$ i3 }0 ^- g. }& d; ~9 f

* Z$ I1 H! I1 c+ J- j. q: E7 [2 u“It’s worth noting that celebrities aren’t always KOLs—they may be very well-known, but what they say may not hold a huge amount of clout with the target market, particularly when dealing with specific niches or more sophisticated consumers,” said Mark Tanner, founder and managing director of consultancy China Skinny.' z. p$ G% D. j??e& \- @

+ h) K, S' y9 [5 V% u% iAnd the opinions of these social media stars are swaying where today’s consumers in China shop and what they buy. According to a study released in May 2018 by consulting firm A.T. Kearney, receptiveness to brand recommendations by celebrities (78%) and online celebrities (63%) among social media users in China ranked higher than in any country surveyed.7 q$ W$ l/ |+ K9 F; u: {! n7 O
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A number of factors, including the popularity of digital media (social media, online shopping and digital video) among young people and a mobile-first populace, have helped facilitate the rise of the influencer economy.
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. \; W. w: u7 z& dOn the demand side, a fast-growing economy transitioning into a consumption-based economy coupled with a rapidly rising middle class have helped increase the demand for a way to discern quality products and services.: j8 y6 m( v+ G/ M
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In China, the millennial and Gen Z generations are driving consumption, and their free-spending habits are well-documented. These groups were raised under China’s one-child policy, and frequently their financial support is provided by parents and often two sets of grandparents. They tend to value self-expression and individuality. These new consumers seemingly have an endless appetite for branded experience and look to social media for inspiration. Marketers have come to believe that influencers are conduits to them.+ F$ \6 g% X, W5 \4 Q??W
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On the supply side, China’s huge manufacturing base is churning out countless homegrown products. No longer satisfied with just making products for other markets, domestic players in the thousands are eager to build their own brands. And influencers are helping them get their messages out in a crowded marketplace.
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本帖最后由 wangyou 于 2019-10-27 23:33 编辑 # z4 X3 j2 t% G3 s2 m4 F* n9 e1 \

0 K. g4 X) i+ M0 HInfluencer Marketing in ChinaWhat You Need to Know About KOLs, Wanghongs and the Platforms They Use
Marketers need to consider the uniqueness of China’s social platforms when planning an influencer marketing campaign. Those entering this market should know the top digital platforms for influencer marketing and how they operate, how different generations use social media and how they engage with influencers.
  • WeChat, Weibo, Douyin, Xiaohongshu, Meipai, Tmall and Taobao are some of the leading platforms to consider for influencer marketing campaigns.
  • Influencers such as A-list celebrities may be better at driving brand awareness, while key opinion leaders (KOLs), online celebrities and other microinfluencers engage consumers in a deeper way.
  • One study showed that 68% of consumers in China say their shopping choices are influenced by social media.
  • Product recommendations from influencers have the most impact on millennials and Gen Z in China.
  • Luxury consumers in China look to influencers when making purchase decisions.
  • While regulations on disclosure of brand sponsorships on social media do not exist, marketers should be mindful of censorship rules imposed by the government that restrict types of content.
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; w( E7 f7 k1 f# [5 M7 O4 s% }Charts in This ReportCharts in This Report; P: i, S- ?$ g) v' W/ R- |/ w1 n
Leading Social Media Marketing Tactics Among Marketers/Media Agency Professionals in China, 2017 & 2018 (% of respondents)
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1 @* X+ S9 S& E& i: ^' n* VInternet Users in Select Countries Whose Digital Purchases Are Influenced by Social Media, March 2018 (% of respondents)
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# a??g2 [* m) I+ G1 |% y. K2 i- wInternet Users in Select Countries Who Are Receptive to Select Social Media Brand Promotion Tactics, May 2017 (% of respondents)
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Marketing Tactics that Most Interest* Cross-Border Digital Buyers in China, March 2018 (% of respondents)
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6 T+ k! ]' Y' |! h- K* A2 dInfluencer* Revenue Share According to Influencers* in China, by Type, June 2018 (% of total)
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- f9 A5 h* Y$ F6 w3 ^! U3 JLive Streaming Marketing Revenues in China, 2015-2019 (millions of Chinese yuan reminbi and % of total revenues)3 B# B+ U6 S1 C$ C; \; @) Y, u
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Influencers/Sources that Impact Buying Decisions According to Internet Users in China, by Age, May 2017 (% of respondents in each group)
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# Z: }' _7 z0 {0 aPost-95* vs. Total Consumers in Urban China Whose Shopping Behavior Is Influenced by Celebrities and Influencers**, July 2017 (% of respondents in each group)- Y: F0 q9 [* K. i7 H% v

. w; U2 R% ]! R( h! ~Digital Channels that Affect Opinions/Decisions on Luxury Purchases According to Luxury Consumers* in China vs. Worldwide**, 2017 (% of respondents)
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* N) {# U% e0 t9 H+ A, G2 c# c* eAffluent* Millennial Internet Users in Select Countries in Asia-Pacific Who Bought a Luxury Item Because of Recommendation from an Influencer, Nov 2017 (% of respondents)1 r1 v' J; |5 H1 l
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Affluent* Millennial Internet Users in Select Countries in Asia-Pacific Who Trust Opinions of Influencers More than Celebrity Endorsements, Nov 2017 (% of respondents)
$ W& W% f6 d, z3 Ghttps://www.emarketer.com/content/influencer-marketing-in-china
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online celebrity,influencer,KOL,其实都是中文里“网红”的意思

本帖最后由 wangyou 于 2019-10-28 12:04 编辑
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% G* q9 I! A# c0 }) J8 l1 G* Vonline celebrityinfluencerKOL(key opinion leader),其实都是中文里“网红”的意思。
??@- y3 y! l0 i; a% z) I- b+ t& b3 A/ y/ I0 A/ A$ Q+ s0 Z! ]
incubator) z% I) ?- N0 w& I
in·cu·ba·tor / ?i?kjubeit?(r) /
% H) a4 e2 M2 o( E" N+ x# {, vnoun* Q" b/ R% _& H) u. u. H6 |
1. a piece of equipment in a hospital which new babies are placed in when they are weak or born too early, in order to help them survive
) k??`3 }+ v' Q? ?(体弱或早产婴儿)恒温箱
/ v- d" K' x3 I1 M6 {??G2. a machine like a box where eggs are kept warm until the young birds are born
: Y; j+ @/ G7 j# T/ h/ }? ?孵化器
* X9 _0 C0 F+ @in?cu?ba?tor / ???kj??bet? ; ???kj?be?t? /
) T1 W1 r??J' f4 W9 D3 Q?noun [C] 2 m+ c( {' B' D0 j5 R1 K
1. a piece of hospital equipment into which very small or weak babies are put to keep them alive and warm' P6 m5 l5 b: t0 X
? 〔放置非常幼小或体弱婴儿的〕育婴箱,婴儿保温箱
# y+ V) ?5 Z0 O7 R. g% H4 M2. a heated container for keeping eggs warm until they HATCH (=the young birds are born)# {8 S0 x8 `* F) A& M" z
? 孵化器
+ K% `: u# q+ @. }; I& |8 u3. an organization which helps new businesses to develop by giving them office space, services, and equipment, and providing them with business and technical advice
0 }2 R: \, k1 p! F? 创业培育机构:1 @6 O* `3 o! u* O; g
?a high-tech incubator on the East coast
, X3 r4 w# {8 F??在东海岸的高科技创业中心
# I! v0 E+ w# [% O% f8 h) t6 Vawestruck
- l! {4 }8 J; P: b) c' zawe?struck / ???str?k ; ???str?k /
) x3 i# q% z, [! n2 c2 o?adj
??C( R. f4 o5 G1 T1. feeling great respect for the importance, difficulty, or seriousness of someone or something
; \/ f$ y/ F3 K! {" d* g? 肃然起敬的,充满敬畏的,惊叹的:) Q7 k+ l' X( G$ W4 S' m
?She gazed awestruck at the jewels.
3 I0 @' x3 \9 P5 j5 ~! {( L??u& Y她惊叹地注视着那些珠宝。 ( y3 S+ k" A' L6 k" @
( q- a# }% {; [* q5 Y
inspirational
; ^; |4 ]2 @# G" u, qin?spi?ra?tion?al
/ ??nsp??re??nl ; ??nsp??re???n?l /
! T: r' q' L9 c??c) a?adj. n??u$ U) G$ S! b; u$ M
1. providing encouragement or new ideas for what you should do
$ u4 ~* T. h' d) @? 启发灵感的; 鼓舞人心的:
( Q+ D??[/ t: |/ j, ] ?Jones proved an inspirational figure in Welsh rugby.. s4 P: E??E4 k6 h$ I2 i1 \: v
事实证明,琼斯是威尔士橄榄球运动中能鼓舞人心的人物。
/ ~5 X8 i1 J4 A- {4 L- P8 ?& J8 e' Z1 I: F
hawk8 \$ p# E7 N$ b% Q& n
hawk / h??k / noun? ?1. a strong fast bird of prey (= a bird that kills other creatures for food)
% X1 b- Z+ T6 `6 w0 v0 ~? ?鹰;隼:
/ |+ B3 H2 A3 M& y' ?? ?He waited, watching her like a hawk (= watching her very closely).5 h' Q. x: g7 T; ?
? ?他等待着,用鹰一样锐利的目光紧盯着她。 9 p1 G& g& h??H' m) ~4 S1 @
? see also sparrowhawk
+ m8 f9 j6 h3 j2. a person, especially a politician, who supports the use of military force to solve problems+ N. ~& k7 p0 _7 F8 V
? ?鹰派分子;主战分子/ a: X7 L+ q4 a. Z
OPP dove verb1. [VN] to try to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them3 O4 `- @2 ~??P% W8 n
? ?沿街叫卖8 a! E4 R# O9 S) G. g
SYN peddle . e) ^; x4 W+ n8 v8 N
2. [V VN] to get phlegm in your mouth when you cough2 L% V* |' [& K8 k$ l
? ?咳痰? see eye n.
& G, F" {2 g( R5 J" y% _; k! T- X+ b7 D- _/ X
hawk1 / h?k ; h??k / - i' P8 b% b6 s* Q3 }3 b
?noun [C]
5 v3 Y' p- B) j1 Z6 L4 Q5 n- U6 L+ u1. a large bird that hunts and eats small birds and animals
" H/ Y# J; |: y$ ~0 i? 鹰1 M" s# X3 a5 |6 M9 C, c2 @$ ]! P
2. a politician who believes in using military force
8 p/ _6 E2 ?! v8 ~? 鹰派人物,主战派人物;
* I" _# W) ~- S【OPP】 dove
9 g& L) M7 E! k% K% ?3. watch sb like a hawk, [size=+0]to watch someone very carefully8 G) a. A8 q( L3 `+ c. O??r# ], n" w
? 仔细打量某人; 严密监视某人
" N! V7 C% O1 C. |$ n/ \; N3 P4 w4. have eyes like a hawk, [size=+0]to be quick to notice things, especially small details
+ z/ U/ z) v! e# w# u1 I2 \: P? 目光锐利; 具有鹰一般敏锐的眼力
, U) b3 B9 _/ f. Bhawk2 . P; @, \; j( d2 f9 R# J: f/ Q
?verb
( ~5 I; p$ i6 j7 F??@1. to try to sell goods, usually by going from place to place and trying to persuade people to buy them
9 g! H9 [' j6 O3 t7 ~? 〔到处〕叫卖,兜售
$ z" D7 |* N/ p- s# l2. to cough up PHLEGM' h* Z1 S" m5 l% [0 J% C
? 咳出(痰) + f5 [* F9 Q' B7 d$ j* q

' _! e% i7 ^; q; ]5 c. s; m1 ]clout
clout1 / klaut ; kla?t / / u/ {; W8 G" p# E
?noun
% ^% a4 R! |' f# T) q+ c! ^- t1. [U] [informal] power or the authority to influence other people's decisions. N& ^8 Z: k3 m+ t: C
? 〔影响他人决定的〕力量,权势:
% }1 e6 B& n( B7 p ?political / economic etc clout7 _" d9 I8 Z. s' R3 M% J" w! _
?people with financial clout
1 D2 f! J6 m- K# c. y??有经济势力的人
2 g5 P. m+ z5 d& o ?the clout to do sth: I- J0 K. d8 |
?Few companies have the clout to handle such large deals.
8 O' s: U2 c! S+ Q( H, m/ D??没有几家公司有实力处理这么大的买卖。
, e: t2 X, T; W3 ` ?An official protest could carry considerable clout .
$ u; Y??Z0 K3 w' Z# o+ v8 L 正式的抗议可能具有相当大的影响力。, U( w4 x; K# k
2. [C] [BrE] informal a hard blow given with the hand: z( `6 O' G??q+ C2 T???$ c5 _; T
? 〔用手的〕猛击:3 U2 `, o6 q: `- ^9 q
?He gave him a clout round the ear.
# w5 i3 S% j: v: T. y* ???他在他耳部猛击了一拳。
clout2 & ^7 B# J- k/ L& @. E( C
?verb [T] [informal] ! l; g! h% K2 @; G( |
1. to hit someone or something hard* I* A& Z! }6 v??y
? 猛击:
) i' |+ n6 ~0 i4 H% i ?She clouted the boy across the face.
. a: a! r: A; c6 ^1 M 她狠狠地给了那男孩一个耳光。
# }' ?# J- X. L/ r- n/ t??s8 C3 W/ H/ r, n, W0 H
niche
niche1 / n?t? ; n?t? / : f6 V8 o" T' V6 O1 F& W2 A; j/ E& H
?noun; @# Q# Y" M6 C( I2 S5 ^3 K$ ^$ p) h
1. [C] if you find your niche, you find a job or activity that is very suitable for you
/ V: e9 o/ f/ M: }: R8 K* T? 合适(称心)的工作(活动):
1 c+ A7 M# A1 L0 V/ S$ V ?Amanda soon found her niche at the club.
% b7 N' R2 F1 }! Q! g, [# T9 i* Z??阿曼达很快就在俱乐部里找到了一份理想的工作。" v8 x* A5 ~+ g5 z+ W( Y" s
?He's managed to create a niche for himself in local politics.
( Z9 p% [$ P3 l' r. |??他终于在当地政界为自己谋到一份称心的差事。7 o. m8 o' `7 `6 N- g8 W. U
2. [sing.] an opportunity to sell a product or service to a particular group of people who have similar needs, interests etc1 W& q2 ~: ~8 X8 U2 I- {' c" u
? 〔产品或服务的〕商机; 市场定位:
1 q8 \' {, ?5 S# G? [+ in ]
* ]3 E! }2 h) k ?He spotted a niche in the market .9 G" e+ @# a/ P8 |: y0 |5 O
??他发现了市场中的一个商机。
8 Z6 S9 V+ U??m( g& ]8 Q3. [C] a hollow place in a wall, often made to hold a STATUE; k1 u! A3 R( k/ b5 a% p3 r
? 〔用来放雕像的〕壁龛
niche2 + V! `' l1 i% J! O6 d) u
?adj [only before noun]
/ u1 s, f) j; M1 V4 |; I1. relating to selling goods to a particular small group of people who have similar needs, interests etc
8 h( w???- H7 V* D? 〔产品〕针对特定小群体的:: ~: W* v" Y7 h! ???Y6 X: e
?niche marketing8 M??o, i. D7 e* E
??针对特定群体的市场营销
. G% Z9 F, J- u ?a niche market! U??a* S& z7 \! }* s+ |0 z# X
??有利可图的市场
6 ~- |* k$ A( }# J; X4 ~ ?a niche product
0 b$ A2 B* f: q6 W) W??针对特定群体的产品 - v+ Z3 v6 X* n. h5 f7 N& w/ _
??u4 y% q??i" d3 a
conduit
con?duit / ?kɑndu?t ; ?k?ndju?t / 3 o* d* p* X. g
?noun [C]
: v3 @7 E7 |' Y/ a: g) z; A1. [technical] a pipe or passage through which water, gas, a set of electric wires etc passes. `' m" f& y3 T. z8 S* f, w
? 〔水、气、电线等的〕管道,导管
& f; ]. F' Z- P( N! c2. [formal] a connection between two things that allows people to pass ideas, news, money, weapons, drugs etc from one place to another
. s0 B5 }??A* m5 l? 〔传递想法、新闻、金钱、武器、毒品等的〕渠道,通道:8 e, K. a. H# P+ u
? [+ for ]# M/ O9 e??]' t6 W1 a4 P
?Drug traffickers have used the country as a conduit for shipments to the U.S.3 X. W0 x) x$ a( |- P
??毒品贩子利用该国作为把毒品运往美国的通道。 4 U6 X??o& n) Z" ?; V

* v3 ^2 V( a& o??Lchurn
churn1 / t??n ; t???n /
* ~" o: `??O- X4 A; A. I?verb
3 ]" p8 g5 M( ?- |1. [I] if your stomach churns, you feel sick because you are nervous or frightened2 H??G( @! j??r
? 〔胃因紧张或惊慌而〕反胃:! t4 j( J# Z+ z8 f; ~2 b
?My stomach was churning on the day of the exam.
; x6 D* H??|1 I$ ~! L/ l: i??考试那天我胃里直翻腾。
; e$ e* N! J- }1 p. W2. [I,T] also churn up if water, mud etc churns, or if something churns it, it moves about violently
+ C- N8 d# l- B: ~, r? (使)〔水、烂泥等〕剧烈翻腾:1 M9 }* E+ X/ l. }5 [* p& m5 ~
?We watched the ocean churn.
: P; C4 `- v( V5 v! X; p??我们看到大海波浪翻滚。0 O5 q% i0 N??I. T0 p& R2 y# L7 z
3. [I] if a machine, engine, wheel etc churns, it or its parts begin to move
6 I' d1 B% R" V6 L* G% y? 〔机器、引擎、轮子等〕转动,运转:
' I+ T7 k6 E+ q( w' c* F6 V ?I pressed the gas pedal, and slowly the wheels began to churn.9 Q' \2 J* F$ T9 Q0 _1 L
??我踩下油门踏板,车轮就开始慢慢转动了起来。
9 Y: n??c, T- T: N. `7 ?; c3 L4. [T] to make milk by using a churn( ?4 y% Z1 k" {( |& ^: n# O5 d
? 〔用搅乳器〕搅〔乳〕【PHR V】* l- ~4 `; _1 b5 [2 U- ~
?churn sth∽out ' K??v2 D7 b2 m
? to produce large quantities of something, especially without caring about quality
4 G7 J5 i2 z4 J0 B+ n5 P? 〔尤指不顾质量〕大量生产,粗制滥造:& g, ?) p2 A* I. o7 `
?She's been churning out novels for twenty years.
* ]8 j8 z/ L3 ^; R' w3 Q0 M9 p5 y; V??二十年来她写了很多粗制滥造的小说。6 V/ y5 e" |% r. ^1 }% Z
?churn sb / sth up
. |2 L/ P$ F! Q1 `# {! O1. churn sth∽up, [size=+0]to damage the surface of the ground, especially by walking on it or driving a vehicle over it
* M* e2 t, y4 }2 p: z6 S? 〔尤指由于行走或车辆辗压而〕损坏〔某物的表面〕:8 H??C" x/ a??G( d: D: p+ J3 U: F
?The lawn had been churned up by the tractor.
& j??z9 I6 S# ~& ~7 m+ q??草坪被拖拉机破坏了。
& S. V$ j0 k9 X2. [size=+0]to move water, mud etc around violently
2 j. G* z+ d' ]8 c% {1 J+ W? 〔猛烈地〕搅动,翻起〔水、烂泥等〕:
- |0 x" j' i4 T' Ichurn sth ∽up
/ ~: `* l1 N) @% B4 z1 ~ ?The oars had churned up the mud, clouding the water.2 J0 s7 T2 ^??j# y: H/ V8 L
??船桨搅起烂泥,水变得一片浑浊。
" q( C; S0 K8 }0 E0 w- d3. [BrE] to make someone upset or angry; |4 j8 J# S; B) C0 k0 I
? 使心烦(生气):. G$ |1 {3 G1 _# M
?Though she looked calm, in reality she was churned up inside.4 Z, \# a/ x/ x# n. [/ g9 [. a
??她虽然看起来很平静,但实际上心里非常气愤。
# p* _& }3 ?, @, |$ m- T
churn2 ) ]/ X% }; h2 B# h% M9 z
?noun [C] , _8 u3 H7 }5 H??o" c3 W" g5 h
1. a container used for shaking milk in order to make it into butter
: [; Q& n+ c5 |! e. i? 〔制造黄油的〕搅乳器
3 y4 s/ t, ]' ]# G8 r2. also milk churn [BrE] a large metal container used to carry milk in
1 h9 k' m, q??v3 S! z2 R. u+ ^5 y? 〔金属〕奶桶 ! X$ b/ |) G1 `2 Y; A: _
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