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高考英语复习总结-名词考点

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发表于 2019-10-26 16:06:04 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
高考英语复习总结1-名词考点2 C7 `% G% n, J* R
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一.名词
7 r- b% w' F# XI. 名词的种类:
# s9 v5 H' D' k: a+ M. Z专有名词? ? 普通名词
" A: m" s: ~- f国名地名人名,团体机构名称? ?可数名词? ? 不可数名词+ {$ d??I+ X% n" f, I' n
? ? 个体名词? ? 集体名词? ? 抽象名词? ? 物质名词
" p4 {8 ^7 @9 F, X9 w8 GII. 名词的数:, F2 c6 {, I* N8 V
1. 规则名词的复数形式:
+ Y: {" J4 X2 ]# A0 ]名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:6 B3 `3 D3 g- ?1 E& U9 L' b
规则??例词
3 O' I' c" {9 C' Y8 e. ]: d1? ?一般情况在词尾加-s??map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days- x- L??a$ `2 h??q/ ]% |
2? ?以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词后加-es class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes
" x1 {0 f: q$ o3? ?以-f或-fe结尾的词 变-f和-fe为v再加-es??leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, loaf-loaves, wife-wives
& B" i' Y& k1 Z4 x? ?? ???加-s belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs, gulf-gulfs
+ {, u4 j8 A- I- z0 z- \4? ?以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加-es? ?party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities! N" N/ _- F+ s% g; D
5? ?以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-s toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys
2 P- b: D6 M0 V( f+ f" [- a2 t+ B6? ?以辅音字母加-o结尾的名词? ?一般加-es??hero-heroes, Negro-Negroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes5 ^??G- ]5 W* s8 J7 g* t; B
? ?? ???不少外来词加-s? ? piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos
; B% V6 A??B" d5 n? ?? ???两者皆可? ? zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos
# k! C. O3 n8 a& a# Q7? ?以元音字母加-o结尾的名词加-s? ? radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos! {" I7 B7 v1 ~" o( c6 z
8? ?以-th结尾的名词加-s? ? truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,
. E+ v# ?+ B6 Z# l! b; r1 n2. 不规则名词复数:
8 v( ~) b% L) n+ E英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:0 D- ~& v; f2 F% T- h+ k& n
规则??例词
8 f2 ?8 r# S) T4 `: S8 [. |9 x??s1? ?改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice
4 U7 c3 L2 q6 o5 f/ h2? ?单复数相同? ?sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species li, yuan, jin,
8 {4 |0 Y??Q. ^3? ?只有复数形式??ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents
! U' {??V4 s' @4? ?一些集体名词总是用作复数? ? people, police, cattle, staff6 C% T) B7 M. [# D
5? ?部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员)??audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party
4 n6 q" v??k( ?) K; y- c0 g6? ?复数形式表示特别含义??customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)6 {2 n# b, I/ ^* E1 C. @. z
7? ?表示“某国人” 加-s Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans
# ]. |/ k??c# B! p" V. N? ?? ???单复数同形? ?Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese
* b) C0 h3 M" Z/ L/ V2 k? ?? ???以-man或-woman结尾的改为-men,-women? ? Englishmen, Frenchwomen
9 U4 @6 U2 b3 r! f3 V: x3 [2 C8? ?合成名词? ? 将主体名词变为复数? ?sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends
; T! N2 {, d; e+ u8 Q3 _??v* D? ?? ???无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数? ? grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches2 h6 {+ B6 \$ {
? ?? ???将两部分变为复数? ? women singers, men servants
1 s' _7 k$ p' T; p& n" A2 S9 V0 sIII. 名词的所有格:; X1 @- E8 @) {, ^
名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s构成,二是由介词of加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。, w# u! |. L5 r; W4 Z
1. ’s所有格的构成:
* Z& u2 t??|. m! N??{单数名词在末尾加’s??the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo,
) g2 ~, p7 s+ \. _复数名词? ? 一般在末尾加’ the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother,
( @' e0 O; T% k? ? 不规则复数名词后加’s the children’s toys, women’s rights,
1 z% s1 A+ n" M2 p' U6 P以s结尾的人名所有格加’s或者’? ? Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house' m9 B??q8 o5 Z! b2 t% Q5 U
表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均须加’s? ?Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s bikes+ ^6 w??L, w: W% K7 {
表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末加’s Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father, [- `??A( A9 {$ O
表示"某人家""店铺",所有格后名词省略? ? the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s- m% C. _* |1 f& {. a3 n6 C& J
2. ’s所有格的用法:2 \6 r8 l$ I& R
1? ?表示时间? ? today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday
' g) H& N! z2 e/ g* ^* k* c2? ?表示自然现象??the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches
7 V* O" D7 b+ F4 ~8 n* ]: X3? ?表示国家城市等地方的名词? ? the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry% q# Z* n6 _) E" N) _
4? ?表示工作群体??the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory2 v0 t+ H+ f$ h??V# z2 D
5? ?表示度量衡及价值? ? a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples1 g) v5 h; d, D
6? ?与人类活动有特殊关系的名词? ?the life’s time, the play’s plot; Z$ O9 Y% `: n
7? ?某些固定词组??a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所措)
$ }; h. G1 ^* ^5 y( |" B8 u+ k3. of所有格的用法:
; \" m/ Q8 f6 }/ H" {
/ o( a) A# Q# q1 G* }用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book
6 g' G6 |+ O??F( Q5 ^用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students5 j) v" F- E5 A; y! b
用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed; y4 S3 S, {2 j

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