Discuz! Board

?找回密码
?立即注册
搜索
热搜: 活动 交友 discuz
查看: 73|回复: 0
打印 上一主题 下一主题

Finite clause/non-finite clause 限定小句和非限定小句怎么回事?

[复制链接]

83

主题

102

帖子

569

积分

超级版主

Rank: 8Rank: 8

积分
569
跳转到指定楼层
楼主
发表于 2019-10-18 22:56:47 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 wangyou 于 2019-10-24 01:00 编辑 ! p, c7 c1 b1 T' i
) N# `, h, F; M. z* m- u1 S
Finite clause or non-finite clause?限定小句和非限定小句怎么回事??
限定小句、非限定小句主要是和动词有关。
限定小句中有限定成分,即,动词也就是谓语受到人称、数、时态等的限制。
非限定小句,主要是指动词的-ing(也就是现在分词)、-ed(或-en,也就是过去分词)或者带to或不带to+动词为核心的结构。
【要注意区分介词短语相比限定小句/非限定小句介词短语=介词+介词宾语构成,两类完全不同的语法范畴。】
先看限定小句(Finite clauses)。
He is/was/will be reading the book.
They are/were/will be reading the book.
I am/was/will be reading the book.
Wash your hands before you have your meal.
Is it raining?
I spoke to Joanne last night. (spoke是过去时态)
We didn’t get any food because we didn’t have enough time. (主句main clause和从句subordinate clause都有过去时态)
以上例句的be动词,或者wash, have, speak, 或者使用了表过去的助动词did,都有时态性数等变化。所以是限定小句。
限定小句其实就是我们说的主语+谓语结构的句子,结构更简单,我们不需要做过多的分析。我们donzh.com主要详细解释什么是非限定小句。
7 K$ n??t0 |1 Z* Z0 Q" R??[( `6 r
非限定小句(Non-finite clauses)
2 Z??a6 z9 S0 d8 ]1 N! _
非限定小句(Non-finite clauses), 也叫非限定从属小句,包含的动词不能有时态变化【其实说“小句”,觉得不太合适,毕竟要有主语谓语才算得上“句”(当然不算感叹句等例外)】。 我们经常用这个结构在从句里。从这个结构里,我们容易看出时间观念。当主句里的主语和从句主语是同一个的时候,在从句里,使用上非限定小句结构。如:
I had something to eat before leaving. (I had something to eat before I left.)
After having spent six hours at the hospital, they eventually came home.
Helped by local volunteers, staff at the museum have spent many years sorting and cataloguing more than 100,000 photographs.
He left the party and went home, not having anyone to talk to.
The person to ask about going to New Zealand is Beck.
You have to look at the picture really carefully in order to see all the detail.
在After, although, though, if这几个从属连词(subordinating conjunctions)后,我们经常用到非限定小句。3 {% p??s7 N: i4 I( F# H+ [
By the end of the day, although exhausted, Mark did not feel quite as tired as he had in the past. (although he was exhausted)
The proposal, if accepted by Parliament, will mean fundamental changes to the education system.
非限定小句两个常用形式,-ing或者不定式,做前面动词的补充成分。: H. @+ X! n$ c( @0 e: X
I don’t enjoy playing tennis in the rain.
I’d hate to travel to London every day.
非限定小句关系从句(Relative clauses)里) w. k; H/ \9 L& D
当从句的主语和主句的主语相同时,作为从句的关系从句可以改为非限定小句。
The man sitting on the sofa over there is Simon’s brother. (The man who is sitting …)
Don’t forget to fill in the form attached to the letter. (… which is attached to the letter.)
! a- j! _$ [??y1 ~
到这里,估计同学们也看清楚了,所谓非限定小句,无非就是咱们高考里的一个常见的考点:非谓语形式。9 I" C$ k' Z??F# j/ ?0 h0 S
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|英语学习donzh.com

GMT+8, 2019-11-3 09:37 , Processed in 0.564017 second(s), 21 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

? 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表